Prophets — Who were They?

 

Introduction:

Many historians believe that the books of the Prophets have already been fulfilled.  However the prophesies in the books of Ezekiel, Joel, Malachi and Zephaniah have never been fulfilled.  In fact the book of Joel and Zephaniah are specially written for the end times.

 Also practically everyone of the books of the prophets refer the “latter days”.  Prophesy is designed by God to repeat itself.  Many of the previous fulfilled prophesies are set to fulfill again.

 Ecc 3:15  That which hath been is now; and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past.

 

Before the fall of Northern Kingdom –Amos, Micah, Isaiah and Hosea

 All of these prophets Amos, Micah, Isaiah and Hosea lived during the fall of the North Tribes.  Amos and Hosea prophesied against the Northern tribes.  Micah and Isaiah prophesied against Judah.

 Book of Amos  (792 BC-740 BC).

To :Northern Tribes
TimeFrame: during the days of King Uzziah (792-740 BC), and King Jeroboam II of Israel (793-753 BC)

He Prophesied almost 50 years before the fall of Israel. The book was written at the high of Israel’s prosperity.  Jeroboam II 793-753 BC. Reigned 41 years. He expanded the boundaries of Israel.  He took W Lebanon coastal plain and N Damascus. He Took control Moab and Defeated Judah (Commerce thrived 8:5,Upper class emerged 4:1-3, had expensive homes 3:15 5:11, The enjoyed an indulgent lifestyle. 6 :1-6) They were at their zenith in prosperity when the warning came from Amos. Within 50 years the nation went under!
Amos was a sycamore farmer.  He was a native of the southern kingdom of Judah, from the town of Tekoa — about six miles south of Bethlehem, twelve miles south of Jerusalem.

“I am not a prophet, nor am I the son of a prophet  but the Lord took me from following the flock and the Lord said to me, ‘Go prophesy to My people Israel.’ And now hear the Word of the Lord!” (Amos 7:14-16).

He was from Judah (the southern kingdom), Nevertheless, God sent him to Israel to proclaim the Word to the people of the northern kingdom.

Book of Hosea  (753 – 715 BC)-

He began his ministry 23 years before the fall of Israel.  The name Hosea comes from the Hebrew language. It means salvation.  It is believed Hosea was a native of Samaria because he refers to the ruler of Samaria as our king” (Hosea 7:5). His family seems to be of significant social standing for the name of his father to be mentioned (Hosea 1:1).  He was the prophet to the Northern 10 tribes before their captvity.

Micah (740 and 695 BC)

To: Both Houses
Timeframe: He lived during the time of Isaiah. His prophesies were spoken during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (715 – 687 BCE), placing his dates then between about 740 and 695 BC.

 Prophesied to both houses.  Micah was from Moresheth, about twenty miles southwest of Jerusalem on the Philistine border, in Judah. He prophesied to both Jerusalem and Samaria, though his principle ministry was to the Southern Kingdom.  His prophesy was remembered and respected in the days of Jeremiah, and his words convinced the king not to put Jeremiah to death (Jeremiah 26:18-19).

Isaiah  (701-681 BC)

To: Judah
Timeframe: Isaiah was written between between 701 and 681 BC

Isaiah 1:1

The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah (783 – 742 BC), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

King Uzziah, King of Judah, offered Incense in the temple.  Because he did that, God struck him with leprosy. There was a also a great earthquake at the same time.  His son Jotham took over the government, with Uzziah living on until 740/739 BC.

Isaiah began his ministry the year king Uzziah died in 739 BC.  At the same time year in Israel, King Pekah became king of Israel.  Isaiah lived during the period that Assyria told Israel captive.  They had also captived Syria (Aram) and Canaan.  Isaiah was in the temple with Hezekiah praying the night King Sennacherib of Assyria threatened Jerusalem itself. Isaiah was with Hezekiah when the 185,000 Assyrians were killed by a Meorite shower in 687 BC.  Manessah co-regent with his father Hezekiah in 697/696 BC, with his sole reign beginning in 687/686 BC.   Isaiah was sawed in half during the reign of Manasseh.  Manassah was taken captive by the Assyrian king and was in prison for 37 years.  There he repented and ask God for a second chance to rule righteously which God granted to Manessah.  He stopped all pagan worship during his reign.

He told how Cyrus would subdue the nations and issue the decree of the people of Judah to return back to Jerusalem.

Isaiah 13:17-18. Behold, I am stirring up the Medes against them, who have no regard for silver and do not delight in gold.
18  Their bows will slaughterthe young men; they will have no mercy on the fruit of the womb; their eyes will not pity children.

Isa_44:28  That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.

Isa 45:1,3,4 ‘Thus says the Lord to His anointed, To Cyrus, whose right hand I have held – To subdue nations before him And loose the armor of kings… That you may know that I, the Lord, Who call you by your name Am the God of Israel… I have even called you by your name; I have named you, though you have not known Me.'”

 Fall of the Assyrians

 After the fall of the Northern Tribes, Assyrian Empire only lasted 90 years.  In 687 BC Sennanirub attempted to take Jerusalem ending in 185,000 Assyrians soldiers killed in a Meorite event.  This weakened the Assyrian army.

At this timeframe Isaiah, Nahum, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Habakuk  and Micah witnessed Assyria fall to the Babylons, Medes and the Scythians in 612 BC.  Scythians came into to Judah and restored peace.  Josiah ruled under the reign of the Scythians for 28 years.  Josiah became king of Judah at the age of eight, after the assassination of his father, King Amon, and reigned for thirty-one years, from 641/640 to 610/609 BC. It was under his reign that the law was found by the high Priest HilkiahJosiah was 26 years old when the law was found. They had this great Passover celebration. Josiah removed all paganism from the land.  He even dug up the bones of the pagan priest and burned them on the pagan alters.

Book of Nahum (663 and 612 BC)

To: Assyria
Timeframe:  After the fall of Egypt to Assyria in 653 BC

First, Nahum mentions Thebes in Egypt falling to the Assyrians 663 BC.   This event is written in the past tense, meaning it had already happened.  Second, the remainder of Nahum’s prophecies came true in 612 B.C.  The subject of Nahum’s prophecy is the approaching complete and final destruction of Nineveh the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire. Assur-bani-pal was at the height of his glory. Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the center of the civilization and commerce of the world, a “bloody city all full of lies and robbery” (Nahum 3:1),

Before the fall of Jerusalem – Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Habakuk

 Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Habakuk witnessed the fall of Assyria.

 Book of Jeremiah (640 –580 BC)

To:  Both Houses
Timeframe: Was written during the time of King Josiah 640 to 610 through the fall of Jerusalem.

Jeremiah prophesied to the Northern Tribes after they had gone into captivity.  Israel had been in Scythia for 119 years by the time of Jeremiah’s prophecy.

 Jer 3:12  Go and proclaim these words toward the north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the LORD; and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you: for I am merciful, saith the LORD, and I will not keep anger for ever.

Jeremiah was to bring the daughters of Zedikiah to another land.

1Ki 9:5  Then I will establish the throne of thy kingdom uponIsraelfor ever, asI promised toDavidthy father, saying, There shall not fail thee a manuponthe throne of Israel

Prophet Nathan told David in I Ch 17 that God promised his seed would establish a kingdom.

1Ch 17:11  And it shall come to pass, when thy days be expired that thou must go to be with thy fathers, that I will raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy sons; and I will establish his kingdom.

1Ch 17:12  He shall build me an house, and I will stablish his throne for ever.

Now we know that the Pharez Kingship stopped with captivity of Judah.  So in order for God to fulfill his promise he made to David he would have to move David  descendants to a different a throne.  How did God fulfill his promise to David ?The Prophet Jeremiah felt he had a commission “to Plant”

Jer 1:10  See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms, to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down, to build, and to plant.

Jeremiah understood that he was to plant a kingdom.

Jer 18:9  And at what instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to build and to plant it;

According to the Messiah, the kingdom was taken from the Jews in Jerusalem given to another nation.

Matthew 21:43: “The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof’“.

There was a “tender one” that would be planted.

Eze 17:22  Thus saith the Lord GOD; I will also take of the highest branch of the high cedar, and will set it; I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one, and will plant it upon an high mountain and eminent:

According to an Irish legend, Tea Tephi, Zedekiah’s daughter, was taken to Ireland to marry a King of the Zarah line of Judah. HOWEVER, TEA TEPHI IS NOT RECORDED IN THE WRITTEN HISTORY OF THE IRELAND.  That does not mean the legend did not occur.  It means that the legend was not written down. The only historical reference we have is a poem written about her in 500 A.D.

What we do know is that the daughters of the king were with Jeremiah after the captivity. He took them to Egypt to Tahpanhes. There is archeological evidence that  Tahpanhes was the palace for the Jewish daughters.

“Even men, and women, and children, AND THE KING’S DAUGHTERS… and Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah. So they came into the land of Egypt… thus came they even to Tahpanhes” (JEREMIAH 43:6,7).

Archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie dug at Tahpanhes in A.D. 1886 and found that the fortress mound was still called “Qasr Bint el Yehudi” meaning the “PALACE OF THE JEW’S DAUGHTER”.

 Jeremiah Burial Stone

See information from website for Cairn T,  Loughcrew  Cairn T, Loughcrew  Oldcastle, Co. Meath, Ireland.  It is believed to be the burial place of Jeremiah.
On the tombstone, there is a Eagle with the twig in its mouth.  This comes straight from the book of Ezekiel.

 Stone of Scone is brought to England

When the Irish capitol of Tara fell, Columba carried the Lia Fail (Stone of Scone) from Tara to mysterious Iona with COLUMBA and his twelve assistants.  KENNETH MAC-ALPIN moved the Coronation Stone to the Abbey of Scone from the castle of Dunstaffnage. Later, the Stone of Scone was removed from Scotland as a part of booty by Edward I of England. William Wallace intended to return the stone back to Scotland. But he was beheaded by Edward I for his attempt to over throw the King of England.

According to the treaty of Northampton of 1328, peace was restored between the Scotland and England.  King Edward III of England promised to return the Stone to its rightful owners forthwith. A promise they never kept.  However, they did arrange a marriage with William Bruce’s daughter and .and Edward’s sister. Joanna the six-year-old sister of Edward III, was promised in marriage to the four-year-old David, the son of Robert Bruce, and the marriage duly took place on 17 July the same year. .Britain felt they had a right to the stone because they descended from the lineage Trojan King Britus.  The stone was removed from the Westminister Abbey in 1950 and returned to Scotland where it resides today.

Book of Habakkuk (606 BC-?)

To: Babylon
Timeframe: 606 BC

Contemporary of JeremiahHe foretold about the fall of Babylon.  Babylon fell about 100 years later in 539. The account of his ministering to the needs of Daniel in the lions’ den in the Apocryphal book Bel and the Dragon is legendary rather than historical.

Hab 3:2  O LORD, I have heard thy speech, and was afraid: O LORD, revive thy work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years make known; in wrath remember mercy.

Book of Zephaniah (640 BC – 609 BC)

To: End Time
Timeframe: Zephaniah prophesied during the reign of Josiah (640-609 BC). Zeph 1:1

But this book is written for the end times. It also prophesies the fall of Assyria. (Zeph 2:13) Verse 7, 14, 15 refer the” day of the Lord is at hand”.

Zep 1:7  Hold thy peace at the presence of the Lord GOD: for the day of the LORD is at hand: for the LORD hath prepared a sacrifice, he hath bid his guests.

Zep 1:14  The great day of the LORD is near, it is near, and hasteth greatly, even the voice of the day of the LORD: the mighty man shall cry there bitterly.

Zep 1:15  That day is a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness,

During the Captivity of Judah – Daniel, Ezekiel, Obadiah

Jerusalem and the Southern Kingdom fell in 586 BC to Nebuchadnezzar. Daniel, Ezekiel, Obadiah, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Habakuk probably lived during this timeframe.

Book of Ezekiel (598 B.C in Chobar)

To:  NorthernTribes
Timeframe:  (598 BC)

The Book of Ezekiel was written to the Northern Tribes. It was written 135 years after the fall of the Northern Tribes.  Some believe that the Northern Tribes had disappeared or mixed into the tribes of Judah.  If they are no longer a seperate nation why would Ezekiel write to them?  The prophesies in the book of Ezekiel are yet to be fulfilled.

Book of Obadiah

To: Edomites
Timeframe: 585 BC He describes the fall of Jerusalem

This book was written to the Edomites.

History of Edomites

Edomites inhabited the “country of Edom” which would refer to Mount Seir and Idumea. Obadiah describes in 11-14 is the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem in 587-586 BC. (Psalm 137:7 and 1 Esdras 4:45).  The Edomites aided Nebuchadnezzar in his conquest of Jerusalem.  As a result, Nebuchadnezzar gave portions of Judah to the Edomites after the fall of Jerusalem. This fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah in chapter 49. This also explains why Jeremiah had been exhorting the Judah to destroy the Edomites. Lamentations 4:21, Amos 1:11,12, and Obadiah 8-10.

By the late sixth century BC, Arabs had largely pushed the Edomites out of the area of Petra, which had at one time been the Edomite capital. The Nabataeans (Arabs) were the first of God’s whips against the Edomites; for the Nabataeans pushed the Edomites to the West into a small parcel of land next to Judah called Negev or Idumea (1 Esdras 4:50)  Verse 7 states that the Edomites have been driven out of their old land ( Mal. 1:3-4).

Idumea border was only 16 miles from the city of Jerusalem.  The territory occupied by the Judah according to verses 19-20 is the area just around Jerusalem, as in the days of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 11:25-36). Placing the prophecy fulfillment in mid fifth century BC.  During the time of the Maccabees, Judah turned against the Edomites captured and destroyed Hebron and Maresha.(see Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 13.257).

It is important to note that John Hyrcanus I, king of Judea, 134-104 BC, subjugated Edom in fulfillment of the above prophecies, “that Jacob shall lay Esau by the heel.” Hyrcanus “permitted the Idumeans to remain in their country as free men if they would be circumcised and observe Jewish law.”

 Verses 8-10 announce the future extermination of the Edomites.  The final destruction of Idumea talked about in the book of Obadiah came later.  God’s final whip against the Edomites was Rome. For the Romans used 20,000 of the Idumeans as allies in the siege of Jerusalem in 70AD.  But afterwards, the Romans annihilated the Idumeans, stating simply that they were a lawless and despicable race.

 FALL OF BABYLON 539 BC

Isaiah, Jeremiah, Micah, Habakkuk and Daniel all prophesied that the Medes and the Persians would overtake the Babylonian Empire.  Now Isaiah lived and prophecied 140 years before the time of King Cyrus.

Jeremiah also prophecied about Cyrus.

Jeremiah 51:28. Another prophecy said Prepare the nations for war against her, the kings of the Medes, with their governors land deputies, and every under their dominion.

Jeremiah 51:11.Sharpen the arrows! Take up the shields!

The Lord has stirred up the spirit of the kings of the Medes, because his purpose concerning Babylon is to destroy it, for that is the vengeance of the Lord, the vengeance for his temple.

PROPHECY AFTER THE FALL OF JERUSALEM

Many Bible Scholars claim that the books of the Prophets have already been fulfilled and have little importance for Christians today.  They feel most of the books were fulfilled by the time of the captivity of Jerusalem in 585 BC.

However they can’t explain away the prophecy in Daniel chapter 11 with this argument.  Daniel chapter 11 prophecies span from the time of Daniel until the rise of the Roman Catholic Church.  Chapter 11 talks about Julius Caesar, all of the Persian Kings, Alexander the Great, Cleopatra and the rise of the Roman Empire and Catholic Church.  It explains history so precisely that it has become strumbling block for modern historians.

 Dan 11 – Who were the Kings of the North and South?

(Research information from DANIEL ELEVEN, Verse by Verse Written by Ulrike Unruh)

World Power Moves from Persian to Greek Kings

Daniel 11:2
Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.

The Persian kings who followed Cyrus were; Cambyses (529-522) who conquered Egypt, Smerdis (522-521) Darius the Great(521-485), who started the wars against the Persians, and the fourth is Xerxes who ruled (486-465 B.C.)

Forty years after Cyrus decreed that Israel return to Jerusalem. Most people were still in Babylon; they were too comfortable in Babylon. However God wanted them out of Babylon. God allowed Xerxes to issue a decree against them.  A death decree! But God also made a way of escape for them.

Daniel 8:4 refers to the Persian kings as the Ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward, who became great.

Both Darius and Xerxes attacked the Greek States. Darius’ attempt was not very successful, but Xerxes did bring troops against the Greek States. The Persian fleet was all but annihilated and Xerxes retreated. However, the Greeks saw a chance to gain power. Thus the prophetic picture now leaves the Persian Empire and focuses on Greece.

Daniel 11.3
And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.

This text is the same as  Daniel 8:5 refers the He Goat who came from the west with the horn between his eyes. The horn is identified in Daniel 8:21 as the first king of Grecia who is Alexander 333-323 B.C and he defeats the Persian “ram”.

Daniel 11.4
And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.

Alexander the Great is that mighty king. Daniel 8:5-8 speaks of this “he-goat” coming from the west and tramping the ram which was Persia.

“The he-goat waxed very great and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds (four directions) of heaven. (Dan. 8:8)

At the height of Alexander’s campaign, he died in the land of Babylon. He actually ruled from Babylon and was worhshiped as a god. His kingdom then divided among his four generals:

South (Egypt) was ruled by Ptolemy,
North (Syria) by Seleucus,
the west (Greece) by Cassander,
and Asia Minor was ruled by Lysimachus

.

Alexander was only 33 when he died and one of the most influential military minds the world had ever seen. His shadow fell over the known civilization of his time and is still influencing the world today. In a very short time space he established a one government rule.  When we study the history of Rome we find Julius Caesar planning just such a world authority once again. In the end time scenes we once again will see another world leader.

The Battles of the Four Greek Generals

Daniel 11.5
And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.

The Ptolemy dynasty in the south was strong. They reigned over their territory with a central power, like the ancient Egyptians. Their capital was set up in Alexandria. It was the center of Greece philosophy and cultural center.  This city will play a huge role in the establishment of the Catholic Church later in history.  They became the most important commercial port on the Mediterranean and they also controlled the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Their trade route reached from the Red Sea to Hellespont. They also took possession of Palestine and southern Syria.

But the kingdom above him, the general Seleucus Nicator,(312-281) with the assistance of Ptolemy I Sotar, took command of the northern territory. The Seleucids took over Syria and Asia Minor from Lysimachus, and thus had dominion in the north. They were the chief heirs of Alexander’s kingdom and held the larger part of his empire, from the Aegean Sea to India. Their form of government was “city centered”, yet each city was answerable to the larger Seleucid kingdom.

Though both the king of the North and the king of the South were spreading the Greek culture, they did not get along very well. Israel was situated in the middle of the feuding powers, and for the first 100 years was under the dominion of the Ptolemy. We read of Ptolemy IV Epiphanies entering Jerusalem and trying to offer sacrifices in their temple.

Antiochus III the Great had taken Palestine away from the Ptolemy, Antiochus IV Epiphanes actually lost control of Jerusalem, and Jerusalem for the first time in years enjoyed a short period of independence. Antiochus IV Epiphanies (175-164) forced desecrating religious practices upon the Jews, which caused the Jews to rally, under the leadership of the Maccabees. Rome had already entered the scene and conquered considerable Seleucid territory in the west, in battles against Antiochus III. Indeed, as a child Antiochus IV Epiphanes had been taken a “hostage” to Rome, as a means for Rome to control his father Antiochus III Magnus (the great).

By this time, the whole Jewish teachings were Hellenized, the truth of God was mixed with heathen philosophy. The Greeks were an intellectual power and revealed her strength in philosophy.  They developed a Kabbalistic religion or “Jewish mysticism”.

The kingdom of Alexander may have resolved itself into two major divisions, yet it was the northern division which carried forward the work of the prophecy as it is the north that symbolizes the later Roman horn of Daniel 8 as the King of the North. Nevertheless, there will be throughout the ages until the end of time a power rising from the south and opposing the northern power. This will again be seen in the Islamic take over of the south during the Middle Ages when the stout horn of the fourth beast has supremacy in the North.

Daniel 11.6
And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king’s daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.

In this case it was Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, (285-246) who was given in marriage to the king of the north, Antiochus II Theos, (261-246) in the hopes of bringing peace between the two powers.  Antiochus II Theos put away his own wife, Laodice, in order to marry Berenice. Bernice lost favor in the eyes of Antiochus who restored Laodice as his wife. However, Laodice was determined to have her revenge.  She arranged to have her husband Antichus poisoned.  She also killed Berenice, her children, attendants and supporters.

Daniel 11.7
But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:
11.8
And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.
11.9
So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.

The treacherous act against Bernice caused her brother a large army against the Seluicid kingdom. Ptolemy III Euergetes, is here described.  He not only invaded Syria, but went to Babylon and took molten images. It is said that he carried to Egypt forty thousand vessels of silver and gold. Ptolemy III Euergetes returned to his own kingdom.

Daniel 11.10
But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.

Two sons of Antiochus II Callinicus (246-225) undertook to regain the lost territory of the “king of the North” and redeem the honor of their father. The younger, Antiochus III Magnus, (Antiochus the Great) (223-187) regaining much of the lost territory and then took the Seluecid throne.

Daniel 11.11
And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.

11.12
And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.

Ptolemy IV Epiphanes, ruler in the South, went forth to fight with Antiochus III (the king of the North)/ Antichus III was defeated and lose ten thousand soldiers. Yet nothing was gained by the battle.

Ptolemy IV Epiphanes entered Jerusalem, and attempted to force the Jews to allow him to offer sacrifices in their temple. The restraint offered by the priests so angered him that when he returned to Egypt he killed several thousand Jews who then lived in Egypt.

Daniel 11.13
For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.

For a period of fourteen years, there was peace between the Ptolemy and the Seleucids.  Antiochus III Magnus, took advantage of this seeming weakness in Egypt and made extensive preparations to invade Egypt. He made an alliance with Philip of Macedon, in the west, to make a joint attack on Egypt, whose possessions they would then divide.

The Rise of Rome

Daniel 11.14
And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.

While the heirs of Alexander’s empire continued to feud, the power of Rome had been slowly rising in the West.The Romans had fought a victorious battle in the Hannibalic War (Second Punic War) ending in 201 B.C. which made Rome a power to be reckoned with. In the First Punic War (264-241) they had gained Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Now Rome is moving forward to conquer the whole Hellenistic World.

Rome robbed its conquered territories. For example, in Spain all the citizens were taxed; the silver mines, gold mines, state property and the wealth confiscated and no city was allowed to fortify itself without the consent of Rome. The inhabitants of Corsica and Ardinia were sold in the slave markets of Rome. After the conquest of Greece, one hundred and fifty thousand Greeks were sold as slaves.

Isaiah 42.24
Who gave Jacob for a spoil, and Israel to the robbers? did not the LORD, he against whom we have sinned? For they would not walk in his ways, neither were they obedient unto his law.
Ez. 7.22,24,25
My face will I turn also from them, and they shall pollute my secret place: for the robbers shall enter it and defile it. I will bring the worst of the heathen, and they shall possess their houses: I will also make the pomp of the strong to cease; and their holy places shall be defiled. Destruction cometh; and they shall seek peace, and there shall be none.

Daniel 7 refers to the fourth beast (Rome) as devouring and breaking in pieces.  It was Pagan Rome that would “spoil” the land of Israel, and destroy it, and continue to fulfill the vision of the fourth beast with the stout horn in Daniel 7 speaking blasphemies, changing God’s laws, and persecuting God’s faithful.

Daniel 11.15
So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.

So this new “king of the north”, Rome, who had emerged victorious in the Punic Wars, began to receive appeals for help from the Southern states against King Philip V of Macedonia. Since Philip of Macedonia had aided the Carthage leader, Hannibal, in the Punic wars, Rome saw him as a threat. Philip was defeated by the Roman forces in 197 B.C. The Roman armies then confronted the Seleucid king, Antiochus the Great (Magnus) and in 190 B.C. defeated him at Magnesia thus already reducing much of the Greek empire to vassal status.  Fifty years later, Rome took the key cities of the former Greek Kingdom. Both Corinth and Carthage, commercial rivals of Rome. They were pillaged and burned in the same year 146 B.C.  As to Egypt, it too became a vassal of Rome in 168. Also people the land of Israel would be become vassals in 63 B.C.

This is the rise of the little horn of Daniel 8:9 which came up out of one of the winds (the west). The little horn which grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east and toward the glorious land.

Daniel 11.16
But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.

This new “king of the North” which comes against the king of the South, would do according to his own will, (dictators) and none shall stand before him.  Rome begins it’s rise to an empire with “one man power”.In the early years, Rome was governed by a senate and assembly, not by an authoritative ruler. Because of general discontent, it seemed necessary to look to a “one man” power to govern. The people chose Marius but the Senate favored Sulla. Sulla defeated the people’s armies. He forced his own appointment as dictator with considerable power (82 B.C.) Following the death of Sulla, Pompey was elected consul (70 B.C.)In forty days Pompey cleared the sea of Pirates. He then moved on and crushed the remnant of the kingdom of the Seleucids and entered Jerusalem and brought the land of Israel under Roman control.  Rome was now standing in control of “the glorious land”. Rome would utterly consume their homeland by 134 A.D.

Daniel 11.17
He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.

It was Julius Caesar, a nephew of Marius, who first gained emperor status. First he was in a Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus, but then after defeating Pompey, he made himself the supreme ruler of the Roman Empire. He lead his armies against Egypt. In Egypt, Julius Caesar met Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemies. He was victorious over the ruling faction in Alexandria and placed Cleopatra on the Egyptian throne. She did not stay loyal to Julius Caesar but joined with Anthony, his rival.

Daniel 11.18
After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.

It is recorded that: “in less than ten years he captured more than 800 towns, brought into submission 300 tribes, fought against 3,000,000 foes, killed a million, and took a million prisoners. He made the Rhine the frontier between the Germanic tribes and Roman Gaul and then invaded Southern Britain to punish the Britons for sending aide to the people in Gaul. Thus his Gallic Wars (58-51 B.C.) took him to the English Channel, twice he crossed (55 and 54 B.C.) but merely imposed a tribute on the Britain king– which was never paid.  He took Isles of Greece, North Africa and Spain.

Despite all his victories Caesar had enemies. There were men in Rome who feared Caesar’s ambitions, accusing him of being a tyrant they struck him down.

Daniel 11.19
Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
11.20
Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.

After Julius Caesar’s death, Octavian seized power after a short struggle. Anthony and Cleopatra were defeated. Egypt became Roman territory. At last the unity of the Roman Empire was under the power of a single ruler. (30 B.C.)  Octavian was name Augustus Caesar and ruled for 45 years. It was during his reign that we read in :

Luke 2:1
… there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.

This tax brought the parents of Christ to Bethlehem.

Christ comes to this world to confirm His covenant

Daniel 11.21
And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

Christ’s ministry was during the reign of Tiberius, and while that “vile person” worked, planned, mistrusted and murdered the opposition, the HOLY ONE of Israel. Tiberius was not a direct heir to the throne, yet through the help of his convincing mother, he acquired the throne.

Daniel 11.22
And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the Prince of the covenant

Jer. 47.2
Thus saith the LORD; Behold, waters rise up out of the north, and shall be an overflowing flood, and shall overflow the land, and all that is therein; the city, and them that dwell therein: then the men shall cry, and all the inhabitants of the land shall howl.

This corresponds to Daniel 9:24-27 where 70 weeks or 490 day/years were granted Israel following their restoration after the Babylonian captivity, to prepare themselves and the world for the coming Messiah.
Messiah the Prince shall come after 69 weeks. Messiah will be cut off. He shall confirm a covenant with many for one week, but in the middle of the week.

Vespasian was declared emperor in 69 A.D.  Vespasian had been engaged in crushing a revolt of the Jews in Palestine, and the next year his son Titus captured and destroyed Jerusalem.  He killed large numbers of Jews in (A.D. 70) Daniel’s prophecy in chapter 9 gives Israel 490 years to prepare for the coming Messiah who they denied.-

Christianity Unites with Paganism

Daniel 11.23
And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.

The original word here translated “league is “chabar” meaning “to join selves together”, “be coupled together. We see a joining or coupling together, with the “king” who had sent the destructive flood. The most deceitful coupling together came  between the Roman government and the Roman church. This is what turned the “woman” into the harlot of Revelation 17, who, till the end of time commits fornication with the kings of the earth.

The “falling away” that the man of sin be revealed, who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God, or is worshipped; so that he as God sits in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. (2 Thess. 2:3-4)

In Acts 18:2 we read that the emperor Claudius (41-54) commanded all Jews to depart from Rome. Twenty years later the Jews were besieged and their city destroyed by Rome. A second condition which prepared the Christians for their departure from truth and for their eventual union with Pagan.  During the years before Constantine, the Roman Empire was greatly weakened. It was not till 284-305 A.D. that Diocletian rose as a  emperor and brought a temporary end to the political confusion within the empire.  After Diocletian’s death, Constantine asumed ruleship of Rome. Constantine sought to find “common ground” and make an agreement that united Christianity with Paganism.

Roman Emperor Constantine was a devout “universal” follower of the “Cult of Sol Invictus”, whose motto was (is) “Soli Invicto Comiti”which is translated as, “Committed to the Invincible Sun”.

History shows that pagan celebrations were given Christian meaning.  For example: Statues of Isis and Horus were renamed Mary and Jesus. (The Story of Civilization, Vol. IV, page 73)  The statues of the gods from the Pantheon are now found in the Vatican Museum. However, the statue of Jupiter was seated on a throne in St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome and renamed St. Peter. Thousands of pilgrims kiss the foot of Jupiter thinking it is Peter.

It was Constantine that signed the Sunday law, of the “veneral day of the sun” which appeared to him the significant and effective expression of the union between paganism and Christianity, thus making Sunday the legal institution of the Christian church.

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